Tools & Fixtures Archive

Keep Clean Your Bathroom – History of Toilets

In the modern times, good health and proper sanitation are just two of the most fundamental needs of humans. The world has been plagued by various kinds of diseases caused by unsanitary practices when dealing with human waste, the deadliest of which is cholera. Thankfully, technological advancements have dramatically reduced this incidence in almost all parts of the planet. Nevertheless, we can’t help but asking how toilets came out to be the way it is today.


History and Development

Contrary to what most people may think, toilets were already invented in as early as the 3rd century BC particularly in India. Ancient civilizations that did not belong to the upper class were believed to have just used open pit latrines and squatted on the grounds above it. Pit latrines are dry toilet systems where holes are dug on the soil and human excreta that will be dumped on these areas are used as fertilizers or are simply covered again with soil. Water is not necessary with these types and is especially useful for those living in remote areas that have scarce water supplies. Primitive designs generally used flowing water to clean the waste. Most of their practices involve squatting near a designated hole on the floor instead of sitting, which was only started by the Westerners in the middle of the 19th century.

Another alternative to dry toilet systems are chamber pots during the Middle Ages. Chamber pots are similar to what we now know as bed pans in the hospital. These are frequently used during night-time and are disposed of in the morning in specialized areas. For the affluent societies such as in Rome and Greece, the receptacles are even intricately decorated to make it look more stylish and pleasing.

Flush Toilets

According to historians, John Harrington from Britain first conceptualized the flush toilet in the 15th century. Despite this, it was only until 1775 when Flush ToiletsAlexander Cummings, an inventor from Scotland, was given authority to produce the flush toilet. This is a huge breakthrough since it definitely did enhance the sanitation of toilets and dramatically reduced the unpleasant smell. Less significant improvements were made after this, mostly adjustments to some mechanisms and valves to lessen leakages, and in the 19th century, Thomas Crapper from England made this invention even more popular to European households.

According to, flush toilets contain water that serves as a seal inside the bowl in order to stop the unpleasant odor coming from the sewer into the bathroom. Common types work through a filled water tank and by pushing a lever, the water immediately flushes out the excreta into a sewer or a septic tank. Typical flush toilets use large quantities of drinking water, although newer models require lesser amounts and can even be installed with a plumbing system that allows water from laundry or dishwashers for use in flushing.

For those who are eager to save money and water without compromising cleanliness, a cheaper alternative to the conventional flush toilet is the pour flush toilet. This type does not contain a cistern to flush out the waste and instead, allows minimal amounts of water to be poured into the bowl for flushing.

Modern Toilets

Technology is improving the way toilets are made. From the typical flush toilets, inventors from Japan have created a version where sensors are installed to flush the urine and feces automatically without pressing a button or lever. Aside from that, newer models have the capacity to spray the person’s perineal area with water, reducing the need for tissues. Some manufacturers even made an interactive toilet that allows the person to make commands and play games while using the toilet.

Portable toilets which are chemically treated are now available for public use especially during events such as parades and festivals. This helps maintain privacy, cleanliness and good hygiene in our public areas.

These advancements in the way our toilets work are definite proof of how far we have come from earlier civilizations.

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How Does a Smart Thermostat Work?

There are many thermostat brands on the market that we would take forever before exhausting their functionalities. Therefore, I zeroed in on the Nest Thermostats. Let us see what features make these thermostats amazing:

How Does a Smart Thermostat Work

Auto Schedule

This thermostat can program itself within a week of installation. It creates a personalized schedule based on the programmed temperature. It also continues to adapt to your dynamic life. Here are the inbuilt sensors that make this happen:

  • Humidity sensors

This device’s humidity sensors show you the indoor moisture and manage the entire house dehumidifier or humidifier.

  • Temperature sensors

There are three sensors, and they track the temperature inside the house and how fast it changes.

  • Activity sensors

These have a 150-degree wide angle view. That enables the thermostat to turn on Auto-Away in most of the house.


Safety Temperature Alerts

With this device, you shall receive alerts on your smartphone when the house is either so hot or so cold. That enables you to know before your pet overheats or your plumbing freezes.

How Does a Smart Thermostat Work

Nest Leaf

That pops up when you have turned the thermostat to an energy efficient temperature. It points you in the right direction.


Auto Away

After leaving your house, the thermostat senses that you are gone thus adjusts the temperature automatically. That means that you never have to waste energy to cool or heat up an empty house.


Air Wave

With this thermostat, you can save some money on cooling your house during summer. The feature automatically makes the air conditioning run less when the humidity is not high yet ensures that the house stays cool.



Sometime after installation, the device gets to know how long it takes before the house gets heated up or cooled down. Therefore, it can efficiently show you how long it shall take it before reaching your desired temperature.


Cool to Dry

Are you living in a hot and humid climate? This feature helps to keep your home dry without using a dehumidifier.

How Does a Smart Thermostat Work


If the device gets heated up by direct sun rays, it shall adjust automatically to read and then set the appropriate temperature.


One Account, Several Devices

Are you in need of smart thermostats that can communicate with more than one house? The Nest Thermostat is the ideal appliance.

  • Two homes – You can control these smart thermostats in two different locations from one Nest account. All you have to do is to check the temperature of the place you are going to and adjust it to suit your needs.
  • Multi-zone homes – You can control almost 20 smart thermostat devices from one account. They shall work well together and properly coordinate the Auto-Away feature.


Remote Control

You can efficiently adjust the schedule, alter the temperature, and get your energy history anywhere you may be as long as you have Internet access.


Weather Sensitive

Using Wi-Fi, Nest smart thermostats check for the forecast as well as the current weather. That makes it understand how the outdoor temperature affects your energy consumption.


Automatic Updates

As long as your thermostat has an Internet connection, it shall receive daily software upgrades.

Nest Learning Thermostat updates its software automatically over Wi-Fi within a week of update release. The feature requires you to have Nest app 4.1 or later and thermostat software 4.3 or later.

How Does a Smart Thermostat Work?

There are some requirements for the Nest Thermostat to download an update successfully, they include:

  • Internet connection
  • Battery life of 3.7 V or more. However, you need not worry because if the battery life is low when the update comes in, it shall update after charging the battery.
  • The thermostat is not actively cooling or heating
  • You are not turning the ring to change temperature


Secure, Reliable and Private

Nest knows that it is crucial to keep everything about your tucked away from the prying or hacker’s eye. Therefore, Nest uses public key cryptography. The security features are 128-bit encryption, SSL, and HTTPs.

Besides that, there is the free Nest application that allows you to set up your Nest devices, view their statuses, and change their settings. Here are the basics:

  • You can stay connected wherever you are and regardless of the appliance you are using.
  • You have unlimited access to all your devices

To use the Nest application, you need:

  • At least one Nest device
  • A Nest account, it is free, and you can create one on the application login screen.
  • A Wi-Fi network to connect to the Internet

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What Are The Types of Shower Heads?

rain-shower-headShower heads are the most popular bathroom accessories spreading wings all over the globe with flamboyance. The need for rain shower system installed in the house is growing rapidly. There are many aspects to consider before selecting a shower head and one such major aspect is to know the variations of shower heads available in the market. A basic shower head serves the purpose of creating a convenient atmosphere to clean the body without much effort. Modern designers out of thirst to add innovative ideas created different types of shower heads. You can check the top shower head models at finest shower.

Different shower heads for different users

Basically, two types of shower heads are identified and have further ramifications.

  • Fixed shower heads
  • Hand-held shower heads

These basic variations are further divided with specific information and design tactics. The following is a comprehensive list of theDirectional-Shower-Head types of shower heads obtainable in the market:

  • Wall mounted shower head: This is the basic type found in most homes. This is considered the most economical way of installing rain shower system and most plumbers are aware of the process. The standard archetype of shower head is wall mounted shower head. However, care must be taken to adjust the height levels according to the height of the members in the family as wrong installation may cause the stream to decrease in flow.
  • Ceiling mounted shower head: This will attract a lot of admirers and is to be specially fitted to the ceiling. It is purposeful in the case of a rain shower head where the effect of natural rain is desired by the user. Natural effect is derived as the water takes more time to reach the body; in the mean time gravity will make the droplets spherical attaining a rain like environment.
  • Hand-held showers: These kinds of showers are known for the flexibility more than the pressure at which water is pumped. However, kids find it really playful to use a hand-held shower. The reach for the showers is also a useful aspect and can be considered before making a decision.
  • Rain shower heads: These are available in all the mounted variants and are a great choice to have a natural experience of rain. Instead of projection of jet streams; mild and soothing fall of water is perceived which provides a relaxant effect to the user. There are multiple settings to maximize or minimize the flow of water.
  • Dual shower head: It consists of both fixed and hand-held shower heads mainly designed for multipurpose use.
  • Double shower head: These shower heads can be used by two persons at once.
  • LED shower heads: These are trendy shower heads which add a glow to your bathroom. This makes the bathroom luxurious and pleasant.
  • Speaker shower heads: These shower heads will enable to listen to favorite music and having a shower at the same time. There are a lot of technological advancements available that can be installed in such shower heads.

There are miscellaneous variations which are not used often. If you are interested in getting a new shower head keep in mind the performance of the product and select the one that suits your requirement.

How to Buy an Infrared Heater? Buying Guide

infrared heaterInfrared heaters are totally different from the rest of the heaters. Just imagine how the infrared lights work. Infrared heaters work differently from the rest of the heaters. They give off heat like the heat of the sun. We feel the heat by absorption process. The heat release from the heaters is directly absorbed by the skin and clothing eventually causing us to feel the heat. So? How to buy infrared heater? Buying guide is herein provided for.

Remember these:

Infrared heater is powered either by electricity of natural gas. Having worried of the mounting electric bills you might perhaps opt to buy one powered by natural gas. Well, you may if you do not care about the harmful effect of fumes vent into your homes. Take note that, gas has adverse effect to one’s health.  Electrically powered heaters are actually safe to your health. Should anyone suffering from asthma or allergy, they are safe with electric powered heater. Yes, your electric bill may increase but the value used for the payment of bills may be less important to the value of your health. You are given the premise to either sacrifice the health of your family or sacrificed your budget in order to meet certain needs of your homes .

Note these additional tips on how to buy an infrared heater

infrared-heater-buying-guideInternal heating element. This factor to consider. Note, infrared heaters are made of quartz, stainless steel or ceramic. The most preferred element is the ceramic stones because they are known of its positive temperature coefficient. These stones are capable to stop heating when the heating temperature in the place is achieved. However, they are costly and more difficult to be replaced in case of damage. On the one hand, quartz heating elements are cheap and easy to use. To arrive a certain efficacy of heating performance, the quartz bulb and the stainless steel can be combined to get the most desired heat temperature.

Consumers may also consider the life expectancy of the quartz bulb. There is quartz bulb with longer life span of more or less 20,000 hours but cost bigger price but with expectancy guarantee. There are also expensive model of infrared lights which cover some built-in electric thermostats which can be controlled by turning on and shutting down of the units. These models will facilitate comfort of the members of the family who have built the desired warmth in the room. Though, the heat produced by these shut off upon turning off except for the ceramic stones internal heating element because the latter have the capacity to retain heat.

Those tips mentioned earlier on how to buy an infrared heater? Buying guide helps one decide for his heater. To note infrared heaters are not always recommended to home users. These heaters have adverse effect to human beings when use in longer period of time. Imagine the heating process of the room by absorption? How could you imagine the damage it might cause to your health?

Giving you the guide to buy is also tantamount to your decision for the welfare of the health of your love ones.

Filtering my Water / Home Filtration Systems

Water is very important in our daily lives, without water we will no longer live. It is very important to conserve water so that we won’t experience drought. Life is very hard, especially if we don’t have water. Fresh water is very limited, especially during drought. If we only could use water from the sea, maybe we can no longer experience limited water supply. But, we really know that we can’t use water from the ocean because of being salty. We can’t even drink, nor use it for our daily uses, that are why our government is always reminding us to conserve water and use water properly. When people do not observe proper conservation of water, the time will come that we will no longer have water. That is why we should really observe the proper use of water; we should make sure that we will not be wasting water anymore. Drought is

We can’t even drink, nor use it for our daily uses, that is why our government is always reminding us to conserve water and use water properly. When people do not observe proper conservation of water, the time will come that we will no longer have water. That is why we should really observe the proper use of water; we should make sure that we will not be wasting water anymore. This is why water filtration has a vital role.

That is why we should really observe the proper use of water; we should make sure that we will not be wasting water anymore. Drought is a very big problem with our government that is why they are looking some ways to use the sea water for our daily use.

Because we all know that sea water is too salty and we can’t use it as drinking water and to grow our plants. But in today’s modern technology we can now use sea water for our daily uses. When this happens, we will be able to use it every time we needed a water for our daily activities. reverse osmosis filters

The Reverse Osmosis

It is the answer to most of our questions regarding making the sea water turn into fresh water. This process of desalination or the removing of salt from the sea water became possible and we can now use the water from the sea for our daily use. you may get further information from about the process. 

This process is also used for recycling and wastewater treatment, this can also be used to produce energy. Reverse osmosis is a very useful technology to have so far, that is why it is really very important to have this so that even though we have limited fresh water we don’t get worried because we can now use the water from the sea.

This process works by diffusion of water into a semipermeable membrane that blocks the passage of the dissolved salts. In simplest terms, it is a process of removing the salt in the sea water by using modern technology that will be able to help us in treating sea water so that we can use it in our daily activities.

Biggest Issues Today

We all know that water issues are one of the biggest issues every government is facing today that is why most countries really experiencing water importation from another country because of too much use of water. Extreme drought was caused by lots of weather changes like the climate change; we all know that climate change results to many disasters in our weather like floods, drought and too much increase of sea water.

Overpopulation is also resulting in limited water supply, especially pollution that a result of over population from certain places. Water treatment nowadays is very important, we can also use water treatment plant to help the treatment of your water and this reverse osmosis to address these problems.

There are also some countries that adopting this process because of lack of fresh water, but the abundance of sea water, it is really important to have this kind of technology in places, especially the kind of place that is very abundant in sea water and not with fresh water.

Using this kind of process is very helpful to every one of us because it gives us a very comfortable way of living because it will give us another perspective of innovating our life by using a modern technology. It is very important that we really need to take care of our environment so that it will provide us lots of natural resources. It is also very important to avoid throwing garbage to avoid pollution.